- Irland, Lloyd C.
The Irland Group
During the years 1970-1985, Maine spruce-fir forests endured an intense
outbreak of spruce budworrn, C. fumiferana Clem. The outbreak imposed heavy
costs in timber mortality, growth loss, and value loss. Additional costs were
higher harvesting and processing costs, increased safety risks, and a measure
cf adverse effect, from accelerated change in wildlife and fish habitat. Costs
of spray and other treatments were substantial. A number of effects can
arguably be classed as benefits. These include broadening the industry's raw
material mix, increased employment during the salvage period, increased
scientific research, improved forest inventories, and generally improved
incentives for upgrading spruce-fir management. Effects that could be viewed
as uncertain, positive, or as adverse, depending on the perspective taken,
include the development of an improved range of insecticides and application
methods; the accelerated mechanization of logging; reductions in utilization
st¡standards; and the roading of remote areas.