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Long-term response of spruce–fir stands to herbicide and precommercial thinning: observed and projected growth, yield, and financial returns in central Maine, USA
Problem Addressed: Long-term growth and yield responses from controlled experiments that include both herbicide application and precommercial thinning.
Goal(s)/Objective(s): Use 40-year growth and yield responses of spruce–fir stands to combinations of early herbicide and PCT to calibrate the Forest Vegetation Simulator (Northeast Variant).
Key Findings: Highest stumpage values resulted from combined herbicide and PCT treatments, followed by PCT-only and then herbicide-only.
Recommendation: Good financial returns are possible over the long-term from early investments in herbicide and PCT treatments in Maine spruce–fir stands.