- Trial, Joan Garner
- Kingsbury, Peter D.
As forest are managed components and processes are manipulated to increase yields of lumber and fiber or alter streamflow regimes, but not without environmental impacts. Environmental impacts are damaging or beneficial changes in the components and processes of ecosystems. With sound forest management it is possible to minimize adverse environmental impacts by selecting management actions that cause the least damage, but do not seriously compromise production of forest products. This chapter is designed to give an appreciation of the types of environmental impacts that are associated with spruce budworm management and to demonstrate that pests can be managed in several ways, each with different impacts.