- Blais, J.R.
Forest Insect Laboratory, Ontario
When spruce budworm larvae emerge in the spring, they either mine the needles of old foliage or feed upon the freshly opened staminate flowers of balsam fir. As soon as the vegetative buds begin to expand, the larvae abandon the needle mines for this newer and more succulent growth. Later, when the pollen is shed, the staminate flowers are in turn abandoned in favor of new shoots.