- Marty, Robert
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service, Agriculture, Handbook No. 627.
Spruce Budworm is a native insect found throughout the North American boreal forest zone. Its scientific name is Choristoneura fumiferana, and its life cycle begins in the spring, when overwintering larvae emerge to feed on the opening buds and new shoots of host trees. Larvae complete their development pupate and emerge as adults in midsummer. Females mate, fly downwind, and lay their egg masses on host trees. The eggs hatch and first-instar larvae seek a sheltered niche, where they spin hibermacula within which to overwinter.