- Jennings, Daniel T.
USDA Forest Service, Orono, ME
- Crawford Jr., Hewlette S.
USDA Forest Service, Amherst, MA
The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the most destructive forest insect pest in eastern North America. Millions of acres of spruce-fir forests have been damaged by the spruce budworm in eastern Canada and in the North-central and Northeastern United States from Minnesota to Maine. Recorded outbreaks of the budworm date back to the early 1700's; but in the 20th century' outbreaks are increasing in frequency, extent, and severity (Blais 1983).