Death and deterioration of balsam fir weakened by spruce budworm defoliation in Ontario
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- Basham, J. T.
Forest Biology Laboratory, Southern Research Station, Maple, Ontario
- Belyea, R.M.
Forest Insect Laboratory, Sault Ste Marie, Ontario
Outbreaks of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura Fumiferana (Clem.), in eastern Canada have almost invariably resulted in widespread mortality of it's host trees. In recent years in Ontario, large numbers of white spruce, Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, and black spruce, Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P., have died, and the immediate prospect is for continuing destruction of these valuable species in the north western part of the province.
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