- Campbell, Robert W.
USDA Forest Service
Data from six western States provided 1,251 life tables representing western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman. These data provided projection capabilities for defoliation and successive budworm densities, as well as a basis for comparing survival rates among the three principal North American needle-eating budworms (western and eastern spruce budworms, and the jack pine budworm). Several modifications are suggested in current methods for managing budworm-susceptible forests, and suggestions are provided for further studies on the budworm life systems.