- Ostrander, M.D.
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station
The grade of eastern white pine lumber is determined primarily by the condition, size, and frequency of natural blemishes characteristic of the species. These include bark pockets, cross grain, rot, knots, pitch pockets, and shake. Mismanufacture and seasoning defects also affect lumber grade.
Many of the natural defects in lumber can be related to external indicators on the log or tree. For example, limby logs result in knotty lumber, and crooked logs result in cross-grained lumber. Objective measurement and evaluation of these external indicators are essential for accurate application of any log- or tree-grading system.
This guide, based on our latest knowledge about the identification and evaluation of surface blemishes on eastern white pine logs and trees, was prepared for use as an aid in applying the standard eastern white pine log grades.
Unless otherwise stated, the significance of the various blemishes or imperfections defined and described in this guide apply over the commercial range of the species. The end product considered in evaluation is standard yard lumber as defined by the Northeastern Lumber Manufacturer's Association and the Northern Hardwood and Pine Manufacturer's Association.