- Heller, Robert C.
- Schmiege, Donald C.
Sophisticated as our space efforts may be, observation from slow moving aircraft still offers promise of being one of the most efficient ways for the forest manager to look over his forest property. From this aerial platform, he can see many dynamic systems at work, such as changes in cutting boundaries, evidence of timber trespass, and abnormal losses due to insect outbreaks. Because biological systems are difficult to evaluate, more sophisticated methods must be used to appraise what is seen. In the case of insect outbreaks, ground surveys are essential to predict trends of insect outbreaks, ground surveys are essential to predict trends of insect populations; however, improvements in air observation methods that can be correlated to information obtained in these ground surveys will effect savings not only in cost but also in the entomologist's ability to evaluate outbreak trends over wider areas.